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## thermometer to measure liquid temperature

The freezing and boiling points of water are 273.15 K and 373.15 K, respectively. On the body of the glass tube, calibrated marks are provided which facilitates the reading of temperature. Sweep the thermometer gently across the forehead so the infrared scanner can measure the temperature of the temporal artery. High temperature portion of the thermometer can be warmed up beneath an incandescent lamp which will bring the alcohol down to the column. The liquid in glass thermometer has a glass bulb attached to a sealed glass tube (also called the stem or capillary tube). Other articles where Liquid thermometer is discussed: thermometer: Liquid thermometers were once the most common type in use. The Kelvin scale is part of the SI system of units, so its actual definition is more complicated than the one given above. The freezing and boiling temperatures of water at standard atmospheric pressure are commonly used. “Hold the thermometer in a vertical position, bulb end down, 4 to 6 inches over the wood surface covered with paper, and then drop. A thermometer is placed in water in order to measure the water's temperature. The definition of temperature in terms of molecular motion suggests that there should be a lowest possible temperature, where the average kinetic energy of molecules is zero (or the minimum allowed by quantum mechanics). A stem, “a glass tube containing a tiny capillary connected to the bulb and enlarged at the bottom into a bulb that is partially filled with a working liquid”. The principle used to measure temperature is that of the apparent thermal expansion of the liquid. You can see that 100 Celsius degrees span the same range as 180 Fahrenheit degrees. \nonumber\]. By means of a maximum thermometer, one can measure the maximum temperature over a predetermined time span. Samuel J. Ling (Truman State University), Jeff Sanny (Loyola Marymount University), and Bill Moebs with many contributing authors. Such scales are convenient in science because several physical quantities, such as the volume of an ideal gas, are directly related to absolute temperature. “Room temperature” is generally defined in physics to be $$25^oC$$. (b) What is it in K? Constant-volume gas thermometers are big and come to equilibrium slowly, so they are used mostly as standards to calibrate other thermometers. Liquid in glass thermometers are fragile and for industrial use, the thermometer is mounted in a protective housing and the scale is engraved on a separate plate that is part of the protective case. The mercury is forced up through the constriction by the force of expansion as the temperature increases. They can be frequently applied in areas where there is problem of electricity. https://www.britannica.com/technology/liquid-thermometer. Unlike electrical thermometers, they do not necessitate power supply or batteries for charging. It is the basis of the design and operation of thermometers. The results depend somewhat on the choice of gas, but the less dense the gas in the bulb, the better the results for different gases agree. For example, volume increases with temperature for most substances. The three most common temperature scales are Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin. This thermometer should never be employed with a parted fluid column since it generally leads to incorrect temperature measurements. They can not be applied in regions where highly accurate results are desirable. Second, even with two points on the scale defined, different thermometers give somewhat different results for other temperatures. $$212^oF$$ Its unit is the degree Fahrenheit ($$^oF$$). A bulb which acts as a container for the functioning liquid where it can easily expand or contract in capacity. A temperature scale which is basically preset or imprinted on the stem for displaying temperature readings. The liquid was almost always mercury or coloured alcohol, sealed in a glass tube with a gas like nitrogen or argon making…. In Below Figure (Left), an all glass thermometer is depicted, with its scale etched into the stem. A typical liquid-in-glass thermometer is shown in the figure below. A bulb is formed at one end of the thermometer which contains the largest part of mercury. Converting between Temperature Scales - Room Temperature. On the Celsius scale, the freezing point of water is $$0^oC$$ and the boiling point is $$100^oC$$. The Kelvin scale is the absolute temperature scale that is commonly used in science. These thermometers display temperature either in Celsius or Fahrenheit scales. Thus, temperature conversion would be needed if the temperature reading is wanted in some other scale. Laboratory thermometers are designed for lab purposes such as checking boiling point, freezing point, or temperature of other substances. Therefore, a standard thermometer is required. Liquid thermometers were once the most common type in use. By the end of this section, you will be able to: Any physical property that depends consistently and reproducibly on temperature can be used as the basis of a thermometer. In general, the area over the mercury is filled with inert gases like nitrogen. When the thermometer’s temperature increases, the liquid from the bulb is forced into the narrow tube, producing a large change in the length of the column for a small change in temperature. Therefore, they must be handled with extra care because they are likely to break. As will be discussed in the section on phase changes, the coexistence is achieved by lowering the pressure and consequently the boiling point to reach the freezing point. The triple point is the unique combination of temperature and pressure at which ice, liquid water, and water vapor can coexist stably. As the air gets hotter, the level of the liquid rises and, as the air gets cooler, the level falls. Record the temperature and time. Legal. Food thermometers, on the other hand, take the guesswork out of culinary arts. Various types of mercury-in-glass thermometers are available. The volume of the liquid changes with change in the temperature. To convert from $$^oC$$ to $$^oF$$, use the equation, \[T_F = \dfrac{9}{5}T_C + 32. The expansion and contraction of this mercury size is then further increased in the extremely thin bore of the glass tube. Similarly, we find that $$T_K = T_C + 273.15 = 298 \, K$$. An industrial thermometer is shown in Below Figure (Right). They employ alcohol as the filled in liquid in glass tubes. Liquid element contained in a glass thermometer may be perilous or risky to health owing to their potential chemical spills. After the thermometer bulb strikes the paper, catch the thermometer with your other hand to prevent breakage. “Temperature readings should be noted immediately after removal because a glass thermometer can be affected by the environmental temperature, heat produced by the hand holding it, cleaning, etc. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. To convert between Fahrenheit and Kelvin, convert to Celsius as an intermediate step. Place the protective cap on the thermometer. A laboratory thermometer, which is colloquially known as the lab thermometer, is used for measuring temperatures other than the human body temperature. They are considered inapt for applications involving extremely high or low temperatures. -30°C to 50°C. Why have been limits imposed on the frequency ratio for thermowells?