[12]:37–41, The ancient Mesopotamians regarded the sky as a series of domes (usually three, but sometimes seven) covering the flat earth. Before the beginning of kingship in Sumer, the city-states were effectively ruled by theocratic priests and religious officials. [16]:151, 157–158 Accounts of her parentage vary;[16]:108 in most myths, she is usually presented as the daughter of Nanna and Ningal,[29]:ix-xi, xvi but, in other stories, she is the daughter of Enki or An along with an unknown mother. The ziggurat at Ur, supoosedly the city of the prophet Abraham's birth. [30] Deified kings may have re-enacted the marriage of Inanna and Dumuzid with priestesses. He was the ancestor of all the other major deities[36] and the original patron deity of Uruk. [16]:58 Nonetheless, there are assumptions according to which treasures in wealthy graves had been intended as offerings for Utu and the Anunnaki, so that the deceased would receive special favors in the underworld. First the underground world was believed to be an extension of the goddess Ki, but later developed into the concept of Kur.

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Sumerian religion. First, Nammu, the primeval waters, gave birth to Ki (the earth) and An (the sky), who mated together and produced a son named Enlil. Help Smarthistory continue to make a difference, Help make art history relevant and engaging, Standard of Ur and other objects from the Royal Graves. [16]:108 The Sumerians had more myths about her than any other deity. Towards the end of Sumerian civilization, these temples developed into ziggurats—tall, pyramidal structures with sanctuaries at the tops. 2600–2500 B.C - Sumerian woman - The Metropolitan Museum of Art - DP-15117-008.jpg, State from the Tell Asmar, Iraq Museum.jpg, Statue from Khafajah, female worshiper.jpg, Statue from Nintu Temple VI at Khafajah.jpg, Statue from the hoard of Nintu Temple V at Khafajah.jpg, Statue of a standing lion from Eridu, Iraq, c. mid-3rd millennium BCE. [16]:108–109 Her main cult center was the Eanna temple in Uruk, which had been originally dedicated to An. The Sumerian-Akkadian pantheon was altered, most notably with the introduction of a new supreme deity, Marduk. Considerable examples of Sumerian art have been uncovered from the cities of Babylon, Ur, Kish, Lagash, and Uruk. : 3–4. Sumer (/ ˈ s uː m ər /) is the earliest known civilization in the historical region of southern Mesopotamia (now southern Iraq), emerging during the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Ages between the sixth and fifth millennium BC. Iraq Museum.jpg, Sumerian Statues from Eshnunna and Khafajah of Diyala region, Iraq Museum.jpg, Sumerian Status from Tell Asmar, part of the Tell Asmar Hoard (cropped).jpg, Sumerian Status from Tell Asmar, part of the Tell Asmar Hoard.jpg, Sumerian votive wall plaque from Khafajah showing 4-legged animals, Iraq, c. 2600-2370 BCE. [16]:58, The entrance to Kur was believed to be located in the Zagros mountains in the far east. [18][13]:184 All souls went to the same afterlife,[18] and a person's actions during life had no effect on how the person would be treated in the world to come.

Media in category "Art of Sumer" The following 134 files are in this category, out of 134 total. The region of southern Mesopotamia is known as Sumer, and it is in Sumer that we find some of the oldest known cities, including Ur and Uruk. Iraq Museum.jpg, Headless statue, the name of the deity Ninshubur is mentioned on the right shoulder. Iraq Museum.jpg, Headless votive statue, from Adab, Iraq, early dynastic period. Other Sumerian and Akkadian deities adapted into the Hurrian pantheon include Ayas, the Hurrian counterpart to Ea; Shaushka, the Hurrian counterpart to Ishtar; and the goddess Ninlil,[38] whose mythos had been drastically expanded by the Babylonians. [32] Utu was principally regarded as a dispenser of justice;[13]:184 he was believed to protect the righteous and punish the wicked. The story of Lugalbanda in the Mountain Cave, Old-Babylonian period, from southern Iraq. J-C Nippur.jpg, Relief of a naked priest, from Adab, Iraq, early dynastic period. Utu was god of the sun, whose primary center of worship was the E-babbar temple in Sippar. Wellcome M0000447.jpg, Fragment of a Vessel from Khafajah, Iraq, showing a Sumerian mythical scene. [13]:184 Nanna was god of the moon and of wisdom. Early Dynastic Period, c. 2600 BCE. C. 2380 BCE. [13]:184 She was Inanna's older sister. [6] These tablets were also made of stone clay or stone, and they used a small pick to make the symbols. Sumerian language, their language; Sumerian art; Sumerian architecture; Sumerian literature; Cuneiform script, used in Sumerian writing; Sumerian Records, an American record label based in Washington, D.C. and Los Angeles Sumerian male worshipper, from Iraq, precise provenance unknown (purchase or donation). During the Akkadian Period and afterward, Inanna, the goddess of sex, beauty, and warfare, was widely venerated across Sumer and appeared in many myths, including the famous story of her descent into the Underworld. Ur was a principal city of ancient Mesopotamia. Old Babylonian period, from southern Iraq. [citation needed], Some stories recorded in the older parts of the Hebrew Bible bear strong similarities to the stories in Sumerian mythology. The Sumerians envisioned the universe as a closed dome surrounded by a primordial saltwater sea. Pergamon Museum.jpg, Detail, statuette, alabaster. Early Sumerian cuneiform was used primarily as a record-keeping tool; it was not until the late early dynastic period that religious writings first became prevalent as temple praise hymns[5] and as a form of "incantation" called the nam-šub (prefix + "to cast"). Enlil was the god of air, wind, and storm. He was the patron deity of Girsu and one of the patron deities of Lagash. [12]:37–40 An and Ki mated with each other, causing Ki to give birth to Enlil, the god of wind, rain, and storm. Mesopotamian art and architecture, the art and architecture of the ancient Mesopotamian civilizations. The Sumerians regarded their divinities as responsible for all matters pertaining to the natural and social orders. We believe art has the power to transform lives and to build understanding across cultures. Some remained virtually the same until later Babylonian and Assyrian rule. The Ziggurat was dedicated to the moon and was built approximately in the 21st century BC by king Ur-Namma. Sumerian or Sumerians may refer to: . ... At Smarthistory we believe art has the power to transform lives and to build understanding across cultures. Nammu was the primeval sea (Engur), who gave birth to An (heaven) and Ki (earth) and the first deities; she eventually became known as the goddess Tiamat. The king-priest, wearing a net skirt and a hat with leaves or feathers, stands before the door of a temple, symbolized by two great maces. [10] Underneath the terrestrial earth, which formed the base of the dome, existed an underworld and a freshwater ocean called the Abzu. During the Third Dynasty of Ur, the Sumerian pantheon was said to include sixty times sixty (3600) deities.[13]:182. Statuette. [39]:97–101 The Judaic underworld Sheol is very similar in description with the Sumerian Kur, ruled by the goddess Ereshkigal, as well as the Babylonian underworld Irkalla. Early Dynastic Period, c. 2600 BCE. [35] In later myth, her husband was the god Nergal. The Sumerians believed that the universe had come into being through a series of cosmic births. [17][18], The Sumerian afterlife was a dark, dreary cavern located deep below the ground,[18][19] where inhabitants were believed to continue "a shadowy version of life on earth". 2600-2400 BCE. Humans were believed to have been created by Enki, the son of Nammu and An. The gods Ninurta and Enlil kept their original Sumerian names. Sumer, an ancient civilization . Sumerian deities developed Akkadian counterparts. Alabaster. Carved figure with feathers. [15][14] The celestial bodies were equated with specific deities as well. [13]:203 Ordinary mortals could not go to heaven because it was the abode of the gods alone.

[12]:37–41, The ancient Mesopotamians regarded the sky as a series of domes (usually three, but sometimes seven) covering the flat earth. Before the beginning of kingship in Sumer, the city-states were effectively ruled by theocratic priests and religious officials. [16]:151, 157–158 Accounts of her parentage vary;[16]:108 in most myths, she is usually presented as the daughter of Nanna and Ningal,[29]:ix-xi, xvi but, in other stories, she is the daughter of Enki or An along with an unknown mother. The ziggurat at Ur, supoosedly the city of the prophet Abraham's birth. [30] Deified kings may have re-enacted the marriage of Inanna and Dumuzid with priestesses. He was the ancestor of all the other major deities[36] and the original patron deity of Uruk. [16]:58 Nonetheless, there are assumptions according to which treasures in wealthy graves had been intended as offerings for Utu and the Anunnaki, so that the deceased would receive special favors in the underworld. First the underground world was believed to be an extension of the goddess Ki, but later developed into the concept of Kur.

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