features of indus valley civilization
features of indus valley civilization
The Citadel was the first locality where the ruling classes dwelt. Flood-supported farming led to large agricultural surpluses, which in turn supported the development of cities. Above the bull there was an inscription of six characters. Harappa was discovered first and was excavated by Daya Ram Sahni in the year 1921. The discovery of this civilization seems to be like a puzzle as it entered the history all of a sudden. Before publishing your Article on this site, please read the following pages: 1. While the drains, wells and pavements were made with the help of burnt bricks. Create your own unique website with customizable templates. The e ran in straight lines and crossed one another at right angles. Stone sickles were used for harvesting the crops. There were two stars under the neck of the bull and it was looking to the right. PreserveArticles.com: Preserving Your Articles for Eternity, Write a short note on the Decline of Indus Civilization. Required fields are marked *, All Rights Reserved Copyrights @ 2020 StudyToday.net. Lothal was an important trading centre. He is depicted seating on his throne in yogic posture. Cunningham thought that the seal cannot be Indian. This puzzle was solved near the Bolan Pass at Mehrgarh around 1973 and 1980. There were many pictographs and each picture had some letter which reflected some sound or object. This is why this civilization was referred as the Bronze Age or the Chalcolithic Age. The civilization of the Harappans is restricted to the geographic bounds of the Indus Valley. This citadel had many building which were rich in their structures. Even with these varied jobs, farming was still the main economic activity for the majority of the population. There were shell makers, bead makers and bangle makers. The Harappan Civilization was one of the oldest civilization in the Indian sub-continent known for its modern structures. Full List of Indus Valley Civilization Sites . Men had beards and their hair was long like that of women. Wheat and barley were the staple food of the people. But they knew how to make and use bronze as well. One was a naked male figure in red stone and the other one was a female figure in a dancing pose. By 1800 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization saw the beginning of their decline: Writing started to disappear, standardized weights and measures used for trade and taxation purposes fell out of use, the connection with the Near East was interrupted, and some cities were gradually abandoned. Many animals like unicorn, rhinoceros, goats, antelopes, crocodiles and elephants were inscripted on the seals. The people of Harappa used wooden ploughshare. There were no cult objects or temples in any place of the Harappan civilization except there were fire altars in Kalibangan. The writings are found to be on stones, seals and other objects. The Indus civilization did not end all of a sudden. Before having an in-depth discussion about the features of Indus Valley Civilization, let us have a quick look into how Harappan Civilization was discovered. Brooke further notes that the development of advanced cities coincides with a reduc… Large scale excavation were carried out at Mohenjo-daro under the supervision of Marshall in 1931. According to Giosan et al. Though the Harappans used written scripts, the scripts has not been deciphered till now. Most of what we know about this ancient religion is from seals uncovered by archaeologists We also know that the people of the Indus River Valley buried their dead in wooden coffins. Two figurines were found here which was made of stone. The seals were used very widely in Harappan culture. Mohenjo-Daro had a very impressive and proper drainage system. The Indus Valley Cities: This was divided into the nucleus cities, coastal towns and other cities and townships. In 1948 Vats excavated Harappa. We know that the Indus River Valley Civilization had trading contacts with Mesopotamia, China, and the Mediterranean, Civilization in the Ancient Indus River Valley. The eastern side was cherished with the ruins of the buried lower city. The Harappan people believed in Hinduism. Your email address will not be published. Thus the Harappans looked upon the earth as a fertility goddess and worshiped her. A courtyard and a well were the special. By all these research the Harappan has been divided into stages like the pre Harappan, early, mature and later stages. A specimen of complete script was found in 1923. The writing consists of approximately 2,000 different seals and is very difficult to decipher because the texts are very brief, with an average of 5 seals per text, and the language isn't based off of any other known language. This further affected the areas that produced food. They primarily Cultivated wheat, barley, rai, peas, sesamum, mustard, cotton etc. The coastal town included Lothal, Sutkagendor, Balakot and Allahdino, Other cities and townships included Surkotada, Banawali, Chanhudaro and Kot Diji. Apart from these even seasum, dates, leguminous plants and mustard were produced. Mohenjo-Daro was also known as Mound of the Dead. Disclaimer Ornaments were worn by both man and women. During this period, the Indus Civilization had the greatest cultural zone. But it had three main divisions while others had two. Men adorned themselves with ornaments like armlets. In one grave itself, there would be skeletons of both man and women. Most of the buildings were built of burnt bricks. The Harappans sowed seeds in November and reaped their harvest in April. (2012), the slow southward migration of the monsoons across Asia initially allowed the Indus Valley villages to develop by taming the floods of the Indus and its tributaries. The fact that the bricks in different cities hundreds of miles away from each other are the same dimensions, signifies a common government that ruled over the entire Indus River Valley. The exact cause of the decline of this great civilization was not known. The bodies were placed in such a way that the head of the body was towards the north. Weekly Current Affairs, October 08 – October 14, 2020, NCERT Solutions- à¦ à¦¸à¦®à§à§à¦¾ à¦®à¦¾à¦§à§à¦¯à¦®, à¦¬à¦¿à¦à§à¦à¦¾à¦¨ – à¦¨à§±à¦® à¦¶à§à§°à§à¦£à§, à¦¬à¦¿à¦à§à¦à¦¾à¦¨- à¦¦à¦¶à¦® à¦¶à§à§°à§à¦£à§, Town Planning of Indus Valley Civilization | Harappan Civilization | History |, Daily Current Affairs â 28 October, 2020, Daily Current Affairs â 25 October, 2020, Daily Current Affairs â 20 October, 2020, Daily Current Affairs â 17 October, 2020, Weekly Current Affairs, October 08 â October 14, 2020, Daily Current Affairs â 14 October, 2020, Daily Current Affairs â 12 October, 2020, Daily Current Affairs â 09 October, 2020, Weekly Current Affairs, October 01 â October 07, 2020, Daily Current Affairs â 07 October, 2020. The multiples of 16 were used for weighing things. Wool was used as warm cloth. Many materials which were found here had most of the characteristics like Indus ones. There are granaries, quarters of the workmen and working floors outside the citadel. The earliest script of Harappan people was discovered in 1853. The city was administered by a group of people who were merchants and priests. In a terracotta figurine of Harappan era, a plant is shown growing out of the embryo of a women. As the Harappan villages were near to the flood plains enough food grains were produced for themselves but for others as well. It was a Bronze Age Civilization in the northwestern region of South Asia. Many seals were discovered in the various cities of the Indus. Archaeological evidences suggest that there was a hierarchy in the structure of urban settlement. of Indus Valley Civilisation is already published in this website. Although mud bricks were used as the standard material but for a few drains baked bricks were used. Mohenjo-Daro has two mounds. The private property and the maintaining of accounts were done by the help of script writing. The priest class was the highest d were considered the connections between gods and people. There is evidence of the many occupations that people held in the ancient Indus River Valley Civilization. The main god that the people worshiped was a naked man with horns, but there was also a major Mother-Goddess, which the Aryans would worship as well. The men of the Harappan civilization wore robes. It is believed that the tank was used for ritual bath and there were separate rooms for people to change their clothes. Humped bulls, oxen, buffaloes, goats, sheep, cats and dogs were domesticated. A bull without a hump was engraved on the seal. The urban people used weights and measures. The Harappans were aware about the art of measurement. There was much more focus on small- scale sculptures of living things, such as animals and humans. TOS They wore short skirts which were till the knee and a string of beads held the skirt. Your email address will not be published. The Harappan script was written from right to left. They also worship animals and trees. At a higher level crucible was also found which is used to smelt bronze. So it is not possible to say anything about the ideas or beliefs conveyed through those scripts. The area they covered was much more and greater compared to the other civilization of the previous times.
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