elements of chemistry
elements of chemistry
Different isotopes of a given element are distinguished by their mass numbers, which are conventionally written as a superscript on the left hand side of the atomic symbol (e.g. Mendeleev, the first to arrange the elements in a periodic manner. The ability of an element to exist in one of many structural forms is known as 'allotropy'. Later chemical elements were also assigned unique chemical symbols, based on the name of the element, but not necessarily in English. This list contains the 118 elements of chemistry. As they were identified as elements, the existing names for anciently-known elements (e.g., gold, mercury, iron) were kept in most countries. Thus, the symbols for californium and einsteinium are Cf and Es. In thermochemistry, an element is defined to have an enthalpy of formation of zero in its standard state. Aristotle, c. 350 BCE, also used the term stoicheia and added a fifth element called aether, which formed the heavens. This number may be a fraction that is not close to a whole number. 238U). 361 reviews. However, a pure gold ingot would be both chemically and isotopically pure, since ordinary gold consists only of one isotope, 197Au. The same applies to "Fe" (ferrum) for iron, "Hg" (hydrargyrum) for mercury, "Sn" (stannum) for tin, "Au" (aurum) for gold, "Ag" (argentum) for silver, "Pb" (plumbum) for lead, "Cu" (cuprum) for copper, and "Sb" (stibium) for antimony. Compounds Elements FAQs. Try our Molecular Weight Calculator! B&R Samizdat Express Release Date: December 15, 2009 ISBN: 9781455388424 Language: English Download options: EPUB 2 (Adobe DRM) And because the valence of a given element can sometimes vary, it is ambiguous. For purposes of international communication and trade, the official names of the chemical elements both ancient and more recently recognized are decided by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), which has decided on a sort of international English language, drawing on traditional English names even when an element's chemical symbol is based on a Latin or other traditional word, for example adopting "gold" rather than "aurum" as the name for the 79th element (Au). Chemists and nuclear scientists have different definitions of a pure element. The abundance of elements in the Solar System is in keeping with their origin from nucleosynthesis in the Big Bang and a number of progenitor supernova stars. For example, carbon can be found as diamond, which has a tetrahedral structure around each carbon atom; graphite, which has layers of carbon atoms with a hexagonal structure stacked on top of each other; graphene, which is a single layer of graphite that is very strong; fullerenes, which have nearly spherical shapes; and carbon nanotubes, which are tubes with a hexagonal structure (even these may differ from each other in electrical properties). As physical laws and processes appear common throughout the visible universe, however, scientist expect that these galaxies evolved elements in similar abundance. According to IUPAC, chemical elements are not proper nouns in English; consequently, the full name of an element is not routinely capitalized in English, even if derived from a proper noun, as in californium and einsteinium. These 94 elements have been detected in the universe at large, in the spectra of stars and also supernovae, where short-lived radioactive elements are newly being made. Technetium was the first purportedly non-naturally occurring element synthesized, in 1937, although trace amounts of technetium have since been found in nature (and also the element may have been discovered naturally in 1925). Click on any element's name for further chemical properties, environmental data or health effects. The chemical elements are divided into the metals, the metalloids, and the non-metals. The three remaining undiscovered regularly occurring stable natural elements: The three incidentally occurring natural elements (, Three scarce decay products of uranium or thorium, (. Since Latin was the common language of science at that time, they were abbreviations based on the Latin names of metals. Cosmic ray spallation (fragmentation) of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen is important to the production of lithium, beryllium and boron. They are intended as universal symbols for people of all languages and alphabets.
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