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challenges of biotechnology in agriculture

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challenges of biotechnology in agriculture

1998. We may interpret this as practical ethical discourse. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, pp 161-180. This is not to suggest that individuals and specific religious groups do not or will not have faith based objections to the use of food and agricultural biotechnology. 10. Furthermore, many of the world's religions endorse specific injunctions against crossing species boundaries, interfering in reproductive processes, and consuming proscribed foods. London: Lyons and Burford. They have not sufficiently benefited smallholder farmers and producers and consumers. Second, one may simply acknowledge that the principle of religious tolerance affords people with wide latitude for deriving faith-based opinions on food and agricultural biotechnology, and inquire how these intrinsically personal ethical judgments entail social norms. In such circumstances, the result of a religiously oriented examination of food and agricultural biotechnology may accurately reflect the society's consensus moral judgment of its acceptability. See Peritore and Galve-Peritore, 1995 for a selection of authors with a less optimistic assessment. Some opponents of biotechnology may wish to take this position. Durant, J., Bauer, M. W., and Gaskell, G. 1998. [6] On the part of those who support the actions of the official development organizations, it is argued that developing countries must follow the lead of the developed world in adopting yield enhancing agricultural technology. There are certainly philosophers and environmental activists in North America who have devoted great energy to these issues. 1977. As noted above in Section 3.2, one of the key points of dispute over GMOs involves the appropriate role of labeling and consumer choice. New York, W. H. Freeman. 45. This analysis of consumer choice provides a rationale for labeling that would permit consumers who want GMO-free foods to express their preferences, but it also puts this preference on an equal footing with other consumer preferences, such as the desire for inexpensive or tasty foods. From the standpoint of management, ethics weighs in on whether people must be informed and their consent obtained before they can become bearers of risk, and on how trade-offs between risk and benefit are to be evaluated. 47. Second are catastrophic impacts that would disrupt ecosystem processes in ways that threaten to destabilize human society. There are also ethical questions about whether it would be ethical to use biotechnology to make animals more tolerant of production settings that are currently regarded as inimical to animal welfare. The term 'ethics' is itself open to conflicting interpretations. Vogt, D. U. For example, statements to the effect that food and agricultural biotechnology is unnatural convey a judgment of disapproval, but do little to articulate the basis for that judgment. Gene Technology and Social Acceptance. First, new agricultural technology had its greatest effect on rural communities in industrial societies during the 20th century and especially after World War II. The source of their disagreement is whether there are hazards associated with the human consumption GMOs, or if harms are theoretically possible, the likelihood that any potential hazards will actually manifest themselves in the form of an injury to human health. However, one of the main implications of calling these views faith-based is that the individuals who hold these views are regarded having a right to hold and act on these views irrespective of modern science or of the rational give and take that constitutes practical ethical discourse. Human cultures display a remarkable constancy with respect to the way that species boundaries are taken to reflect a kind of natural order, reflected in the linguistic tendency to build the system of meanings around natural kinds. 56. Westra, L. 1997. Kettner, M. 1993. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. Trustworthy people display thoughtfulness of purpose and a clear capacity to be mindful of the interests of those by whom they are trusted.

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