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benefits of germplasm collection

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benefits of germplasm collection

With the advent of molecular approaches, it became possible to use genetic information to identify material within a germplasm collection and compare that material with samples collected elsewhere. However, material that is promising for rootstock breeding, such as wild relatives, are generally planted ungrafted. While germplasm collections are a valuable resource for the plant breeding, many woody perennial crops are grown grafted onto rootstocks (Warschefsky et al., 2016). For example, one study of 40 ‘Pinot noir’ grapevine clones found that 37 could be discriminated based on patterns of methylation (Ocaña et al., 2013). The 24-month lead access period will run from 1 July 2021 until 30 June 2023 (“Lead Access Period”). Germplasm collections were not originally intended for GWAS, and although it is possible to leverage them for genetic mapping, many confounding variables may exist. These are just a few examples of the extensive opportunity for HT phenotyping held within living collections. Karst.] Woody perennial crop wild relatives face the same risks from climate change and habitat loss as other species, but little information is available on their conservation status. For some crops, morphological data are available online (https://npgsweb.ars‐grin.gov/gringlobal/descriptors.aspx); many other datasets are maintained offline by individual germplasm curators. Therefore, it is generally possible for curators of germplasm collections to balance grafting accessions that require it with the inclusion of additional ungrafted accessions, or species, that may be useful for rootstock evaluation and breeding. Globally, an estimated 10% of tree species are threatened with extinction (Oldfield et al., 1998); for tropical species, this number is estimated to be vastly higher, from 36 to 57% of species (ter Steege et al., 2015). (Escribano et al., 2008). Living germplasm collections are critical resources for exploring and conserving genetic and phenotypic diversity and provide novel material for breeding efforts. Therefore, it is also important that agencies, particularly botanic gardens and arboreta, reach across geographic boundaries to build partnerships aimed at capacity building in tropical and subtropical regions that can provide ex situ conservation sites for tropical tree crops (Oldfield, 2009). Access to genetic information from diverse germplasm collections is a valuable resource for validation and reconstruction of plant pedigrees. The ABC provides a potential framework to inspire future germplasm collections, which will amplify their use for GWAS. The users of this manual must ensure that the requirements of any applicable access and benefit sharing agreements, including the Nagoya protocol are met. Despite their importance for breeding and science, living germplasm collections are expensive to establish and maintain, and as a result they are continually threatened by funding cuts. For example, the goal of the National Tropical Botanical Garden Breadfruit Institute (https://ntbg.org/breadfruit) is to promote the conservation, study, and use of breadfruit (Artocarpus spp. Farmer‐based conservation provides a mechanism for preserving traits that may not be of immediate interest in the commercial market (Brush, 1991) and conserving diversity across the landscape. Some efforts have been made to address these shortcomings—for example, by leveraging multiple germplasm collections simultaneously for genetic mapping. However, woody perennial species have inherent differences in life history, seed biology, and propagation methods that preclude exclusive use of seed banks for conservation. Therefore, one of the major considerations in collections of these species is the maximization of genetic returns on collection and conservation effort (Cavender et al., 2015). Ultimately, this work can improve understanding of perennial plant domestication, as evidenced by work in grape (Myles et al., 2011; Zhou et al., 2017), peach and almond (Velasco et al., 2016), and mango (Warschefsky and von Wettberg, 2019). Living collections are important germplasm repositories preserving woody perennials in orchards, plantations, and vineyards. Woody crops are often best maintained as living collections, but these compose only 5.8% of ex situ germplasm collections. Below, we draw on literature from conservation of woody perennials, including trees, and plant genetic resource communities to discuss the challenges and best practices for ex situ conservation of woody perennial genetic resources. It is essential to examine diverse germplasm to better understand variation in individual responses to changing conditions and to identify germplasm that can withstand climatic variations for use in breeding. Woody perennial plants make up nearly half of plant diversity and represent one‐third of the world's major crop species, yet effective strategies to maintain and preserve these important species require additional attention. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. (Wibowo et al., 2018). Vavilov All‐Russian Scientific Research Institute of Plant Industry (http://www.vir.nw.ru/unu‐kollektsiya‐vir/), and the International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF) network (http://worldagroforestry.org/). In addition to serving as a valuable repository of plant genetic diversity, living collections offer important opportunities for research characterizing phenotypic and genetic variation and provide the requisite germplasm to support plant breeding efforts. In particular, the implications for genetic mapping are that by emphasizing genomic diversity, many rare alleles of interest will be at a very low frequency within the collection and therefore lack the statistical power for GWAS (Byrne et al., 2018). Information on many of these collections is unified in online databases such as Genesys (www.genesys‐pgr.org), BGCI's PlantSearch (https://www.bgci.org/plant_search.php), and FAO's World Information and Early Warning System on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (WIEWS) database (http://www.fao.org/wiews), which provide access to millions of accessions worldwide. However, clonal reproduction also complicates germplasm curation, facilitating the mislabeling of individuals as homonyms or synonyms and hindering both conservation and utilization of these important genetic resources (Guzzon and Ardenghi, 2018). Learn more. Current breeding efforts are making use of American and European hazelnut germplasm collections in accelerating the introgression of commercially important traits such as climatic tolerance, disease resistance, and improved nut quality to expand the viability of this crop (Revord et al., 2019). The BGCI estimates that 500 million people visit botanical gardens annually (https://www.bgci.org/about/about‐botanic‐garden/), and thus these gardens function not only as a valuable resource for maintaining ex situ collections of woody perennial crops, but also for continued outreach, education, and conservation efforts. Could taxonomic misnaming threaten the ex situ conservation and the usage of plant genetic resources? Although cryopreservation is more costly than traditional cold storage techniques and requires species‐specific optimization of protocols, long‐term storage costs for cryopreservation are estimated to be one quarter of that for maintenance in living germplasm collections (Keller et al., 2008). China is rich in pomegranate genetic resources, but how to use them effectively is a problem worthy of deep consideration.

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