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Katrin Fridriks

aphis craccivora life cycle

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aphis craccivora life cycle

A very small amount (10-20 ppb) can produce fatal liver cancer in young animals. Infected plants become bushy and produce several flowers. Root galls contain white swollen adult females. Plants infected at early stages are severely stunted. Fumigants and organophosphate nematicides are effective against ring nematodes. Manage nematode because they may predispose plants to attack by fungal pathogens. Plants infected late, show typical leaf symptoms without the marked stunting and bushy appearance. R. solani also survives as mycelium by colonizing soil organic matter as a saprophyte, particularly as a result of plant pathogenic activity. Privacy Policy3. The fungus stains and weakens the lint fibre. These factors include excessive soil moisture, wide fluctuations in soil moisture, calcium deficiency, insect and nematode feeding, and irrigation with poor quality (salty) water. Descriptions of Plant Viruses, Proc. ii. Seed infection results in reduced quality and viability and the production of aflatoxin. Infected pods develop knobs, protuberances, or small warts. Share Your PDF File Farming Ahead 215: 49 -51. Sclerotia (0.5-2.0 mm diameter) begin to develop after 4-7 days of mycelial growth. The occurrence of pod rots may be severe due to attacks of nematodes, termites, and millipedes on pods, thus predisposing the invasion by fungi and bacteria. Severe outbreaks of pod rot are less common, but can be devastating where they occur. Subsequently produced leaflets are dark green with faint mottling. These germinate by germ tubes and cause infection directly or through stomata. This data will be updated every 24 hours. Rust (Puccinia arachidis) is identified by the appearance of orange pustules (uredinia) on the abaxial (lower) surface of leaves and reddish brown urediniospores (uredospores). The females are attracted to green plants and seem to distinguish between the odor of their original host-plant and others. Symptoms first appear as spots on the cotyledons of the seedlings. i. Images by E. Arcaya. Subsequently terminal bud necrosis occurs especially when day temperatures exceed 30°C. Later infected plants may only show bud necrosis on a few branches and axillary shoot proliferations may be restricted to the terminal portion. They observed free water on the leaves in the high Relative Humidity treatment, which suggests that leaf wetness may be an important variable. Cowpea plant architecture in relation to infestation and damage by the legume pod borer. Root-knot nematodes enter and damage groundnut roots, pegs, and pods. Aflatoxin contamination in groundnut can occur in the stems of seedlings, pods and seeds. The older leaflets are dark green and reduced in size with their margins rolled outward. iii. There are several causes of pod decay and discoloration in peanuts and several pathogens are a leading cause of pod rot. Aphis craccivora is mainly responsible for the spread of rosette disease. iii. This is caused by the darker necrotic parenchyma, the outer cells of the pod and the necrotic areas become diffused. Spray crop with Imidacloprid 17.8 SL at the rate 0.25 ml/ liter or monocrotophos 36 SL at the rate 1.0 ml/liter or Oxydemeton methyl at the rate 1.5 ml/liter at 30 and 40 days after sowing. Abstract views reflect the number of visits to the article landing page. Share Your Word File Adjust date of sowing to avoid the peak disease incidence. Usually only a large population of nematodes produce symptoms of a chlorotic appearance that have been called “peanut yellows”. Both mechanical and chemical damage result from the nematodes feeding within the tissues. 8.5). Many strains of this fungus are capable of producing aflatoxins that render the seed unacceptable due to high toxicity for human or animal consumption. Canola diseases: The back pocket guide. This fungus is very common in the atmosphere and in the soil and is often found as a saprophyte. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Likewise, plants with a few rotted pods are found in most fields. Pod rot tends to be severe in sandy soils and in fields intensively cropped to peanuts. Identification and characterization of resistance to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in Medicago truncatula. Even in late-infected plants, yield losses of up to 60% have been observed. The adults are generally less than 0.5 mm in length. - Nymphs dull greyish, lightly powdered .. Multiple regression analysis of different environmental factors combinations including rainfall, evaporation rates explained more than 96% of the observed variation in incubation period. Females have a long slender Stylet with rounded knobs, whereas males usually have less developed or no stylet. Older leaflets are bright-yellow with dark- green patches. (Late leaf spot). A crop rotation of cereal-cereal-groundnut can significantly decrease the level of root-knot nematode infestation in soils. Plants that survive germination and emergence appear chlorotic due to the presence of aflatoxin throughout the plant. Infected plants tend to wilt under drought conditions. However, carbendazim (0.05%) controls both leaf spots very effectively. Non fumigant nematicides are aldicarb, carbofuran, and phenamiphos. The extent of yellow mould damage and aflatoxin production is dependent on the environmental conditions and production, harvesting and storage practices. The radiate heads split with maturity. Sometime nematodes are established in the roots without visual symptoms above the ground, and cause yield reduction. The population of vectors increases rapidly from January-March and August-September Kharif and hence the crop suffers a heavy loss in both the seasons. Use a soil biocide such as carbofuran. Yellow mould is more severe in the tropics, with symptoms appearing both early in the growth of the peanut seedlings, and near harvest time on pods and seeds in the soil. The average duration of A. exotica development was 15.04 days from egg to adult. Lannou & Blizoua Bi (1989) examined techniques to infect groundnut plants with P. personata and found that the infection process took longer than 6 days. Consequently several giant cells formed around the nematodes head. The percentage of conidia that germinate is known to decrease with increasing temperature above 20°C and at 20°C it takes about 12 h for 50% of the conidia to germinate. It is important on food legumes, peanut (groundnut) and cowpea, in particular, but also on French beans (Phaseolus species) mungbean (and other Vigna species), pigeon pea, chickpea, alfalfa and several others.

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